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  • Title: Revaccination of children after completion of standard chemotherapy for acute leukemia.
    Author: Patel SR, Ortín M, Cohen BJ, Borrow R, Irving D, Sheldon J, Heath PT.
    Journal: Clin Infect Dis; 2007 Mar 01; 44(5):635-42. PubMed ID: 17278052.
    BACKGROUND: After the treatment of patients with acute leukemia, there is a decrease in vaccine-specific antibody and an increased susceptibility to certain vaccine-preventable diseases. A simple revaccination schedule is warranted. METHOD: Fifty-nine children (age, 1-18 years) who had completed standard chemotherapy in accordance with Medical Research Council of United Kingdom protocols were recruited. All children received a single dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, meningococcus C, polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines > or = 6 months after completion of treatment. Antibody concentrations were measured before vaccination and 2-4 weeks and 12 months after vaccination. RESULTS: Prevaccination antibody levels were protective for all patients for tetanus (geometric mean concentration [GMC], 0.13 IU/mL; 95% CI, 0.1-0.17 IU/mL), for 87% for Hib (GMC, 0.5 microg/mL; 95% CI, 0.37-0.74 microg/mL), for 71% for measles (GMC, 301 mIU/mL; 95% CI, 163-557 mIU/mL), for 12% for meningococcus C (geometric mean titer [GMT], 1:2.9; 95% CI, 1:2.2 to 1:3.9), and for 11% for all 3 poliovirus serotypes. Revaccination resulted in a significant increase in levels of antibody to each vaccine antigen, with 100% of patients achieving optimal antitetanus antibody concentrations (defined as > 0.1 IU/mL; 1.5 IU/mL; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1 IU/mL), 93% achieving optimal antibody concentrations to Hib (defined as > 1.0 microg/mL; 6.5 microg/mL; 95% CI, 5.1-8.2 microg/mL), 94% achieving optimal antibody concentrations to measles (defined as > or = 120 mIU/mL; 2720 mIU/mL; 95% CI, 1423-5198 mIU/mL), 96% achieving optimal antibody concentrations to meningococcus C (defined as > or = 1:8; 1:1000; 95% CI, 1:483-1:2064), and 85% achieving optimal antibody concentrations to all the 3 poliovirus serotypes (defined as > or = 1:8). For the majority of subjects, protection persisted for at least 12 months after vaccination. CONCLUSION: Revaccination of children after standard chemotherapy is important, and protection can be achieved in the majority of these children using a simple schedule of 1 vaccine dose at 6 months after completion of leukemia therapy.
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